Why Did Rome Spare the City of Carthage after the Second Punic War and then Destroy it Fifty Years Later?

It was Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus who finally defeated Hannibal at the end of the Second Punic war. He imposed Roman terms on the city. They were generous terms in that they allowed Carthage autonomy with their own laws and government. The treaty forced Carthage to destroy all but five of their battleships, stop training […]

What Role Did the Berbers (Numidians) Play in the Destruction of Carthage?

The Romans called the native peoples of North Africa Numidians, which meant nomads. They were distinct from the Carthaginians who were descended from Phoenician colonists. The Numidians provided the Carthaginians with mercenaries, and at the start of the Second Punic War in 218 B.C. both major tribes, the Masaesyli under King Syphax and the Massylii […]

Why did Hannibal not Besiege and Conquer Rome after his Victory at Cannae.

After the battle of Cannae one would have thought that Hannibal had Rome on the ropes. It is believed that one in five Roman or allied men of military age died at Cannae, Trasimene or Trebia. The story goes that Hannibal’s cavalry chief, Maharbal offered to take his cavalry to Rome and besiege the city, […]

Quora Question: Why did Hannibal Hate the Romans

Hannibal’s father was Hamilcar Barca, the most effective general Carthage produced during the 23 year long First Punic War, 264 B.C. to 241 B.C. In 264 B.C. Carthage suffered a massive defeat at the naval battle of the Aegates Islands and sued for peace. Hamilcar Barca had been having some success against the Romans in […]

Quora Qestion: Why did Carthage do so Well in Their War Against Rome

If you are referring to the Second Punic War, Carthaginian success was entirely due to one military genius, Hannibal. Hannibal introduced a style of warfare that the Romans had never before experienced and were unprepared for. In the two years after Hannibal crossed the Alps into Italy, Hannibal won four battles, three of them major. […]

Quora Question: What did Hannibal Think of the Romans

Hannibal was indoctrinated by his father, Hamilcar Barca, to hate the Romans. There is a story that, before taking Hannibal with him to Spain, Hamilcar took him to the Temple of Elissa at Carthage and made him swear an oath: “When I come to age, I shall pursue the Romans with fire and sword and […]

The Last Carthaginian is Now Available on Amazon and Kindle

I have just published the third in my series of historical novels about the Second and Third Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage. The Death of Carthage told the story of the Second and Third Punic Wars from the point of view of the Romans. In the Wake of Hannibal told the story of the […]

Why Did the Romans Destroy Carthage?

The Punic wars were a pivotal point in Roman history. Rome emerged from them literally ready and able to conquer the world.      After the Second Punic War, Carthage was subdued. They were devoid of warships, war elephants and sources of mercenary soldiers. They could not even effectively defend themselves against their Numidian neighbors who […]

Introduction to The Last Carthaginian

I am putting the finishing touches on my new Novel the Last Carthaginian and intend to publish it next month.      The Death of Carthage, my first book in this series, told the story of the Second and third Punic wars through the eyes of three fictional Romans who lived through them. My second book, […]

Book Review: Salammbo by Gustave Flaubert

The twenty-three year long war with Rome is finally over. Carthage has been defeated and the once wealthy city is depleted of funds. What to do about the mercenaries? They must somehow be paid. The Suffetes decide to appease them by giving them a grand banquet at the property of the immensely wealthy general Hamilcar, […]