What Happened to the Carthaginian Empire after The Battle of Zama?

After Hannibal’s defeat at Zama, Carthage was forced into a treaty on Roman terms. Scipio Africanus imposed an indemnity of ten thousand talents to be paid off over a fifty-year period. They lost all of their overseas territory and were confined to what is now Tunisia and perhaps part of what is now Libya. They […]

Was The Third Punic War and the Destruction of Carthage Justified?

I don’t feel that the genocide of Carthage was justified at the time. After the Battle of Zama at which Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated Hannibal, he imposed a treaty on Carthage which imposed a huge indemnity to be paid over a fifty-year period, and limited Carthage’s military activities to Africa and allowed them to make […]

What Did Scipio Do to Oppose Hannibal after He Invaded Italy?

When Hannibal invaded Italy Scipio was only seventeen, so he served in the legions, first under his father, Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder, who was Consul at the time. At the Battle of Ticinus he was in charge of a Turma, a group of 30 cavalry, and he led the charge of the turma to […]

Quora Question: Did Cato the Elder Believe that the Destruction Was the Most Important Thing For Rome?

It would be hard to say whether Cato the Elder thought that the destruction of Carthage was more important than anything else for Rome, but it was certainly a top priority for him. Cato was in his 80s at the time of the Third Punic War which began in 149 B.C. He was a veteran […]

What Was the Role of Hispanian Tribesmen in the Second Punic War?

During the Second Punic War, Rome and Carthage contended with each other for the loyalty and support of the native Spanish Tribes. When Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar Barca, came to Spain to establish Carthaginian hegemony, he encountered resistance from some of the tribes. In fact, he was killed in a conflict with the Carpetani, a large […]

Why Did Rome Spare the City of Carthage after the Second Punic War and then Destroy it Fifty Years Later?

It was Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus who finally defeated Hannibal at the end of the Second Punic war. He imposed Roman terms on the city. They were generous terms in that they allowed Carthage autonomy with their own laws and government. The treaty forced Carthage to destroy all but five of their battleships, stop training […]

What Role Did the Berbers (Numidians) Play in the Destruction of Carthage?

The Romans called the native peoples of North Africa Numidians, which meant nomads. They were distinct from the Carthaginians who were descended from Phoenician colonists. The Numidians provided the Carthaginians with mercenaries, and at the start of the Second Punic War in 218 B.C. both major tribes, the Masaesyli under King Syphax and the Massylii […]

Book Review: The Carthaginians by Dexter Hoyos

The Carthaginians is the most thoroughly researched and comprehensive book I have read about the Carthaginian civilization and its history. Dexter Hoyos draws upon both archeology and ancient writings to produce as complete a portrait of ancient Carthage and it’s sphere of influence as possible, and in so doing he dispels or brings into question […]

Book Review: Total War. Destroy Carthage by David Gibbons

I knew I was in trouble when I read the dramatis personae of this book and found that Scipio Aemilianus was married to a fictional person named Claudia Pulchra (or Pulchradina, as the author puts it.) It is well known that Scipio Aemilianus was married to Sempronia Graccha, the daughter of Cornelia the Mother of […]