Why Did Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Refuse to be Buried in Rome?

“Ingrata Patria, ne osse quidem habebis”- Ungrateful fatherland, you won’t even have my bones. Scipio Africanus was by far the most effective Roman military figure of the Second Punic War. After his father and uncle were killed in the Battles of the Upper Baetis in 211 B.C., he somehow got himself elected to take their […]

Quora Question: When and Why did the Romans Begin to Conquer Other Peoples

The Romans were always warlike. Their only prolonged period of peace was under their second king, Numa. The doors to the Temple of Janus were closed only during time of peace, and they were only closed once during the period between the reign of King Numa and the Principate of Augustus, a period of perhaps […]

Quora Qestion: Why did Carthage do so Well in Their War Against Rome

If you are referring to the Second Punic War, Carthaginian success was entirely due to one military genius, Hannibal. Hannibal introduced a style of warfare that the Romans had never before experienced and were unprepared for. In the two years after Hannibal crossed the Alps into Italy, Hannibal won four battles, three of them major. […]

Quora Question: What did Hannibal Think of the Romans

Hannibal was indoctrinated by his father, Hamilcar Barca, to hate the Romans. There is a story that, before taking Hannibal with him to Spain, Hamilcar took him to the Temple of Elissa at Carthage and made him swear an oath: “When I come to age, I shall pursue the Romans with fire and sword and […]

Quora Question: Who in Your Opinion Was the Greatest General in World History

    There are many candidates for the greatest soldier/warrior in world history, but I would choose Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the Roman general who defeated the Carthaginian general Hannibal in the Second Punic War (218 B.C. to 202 B.C.) Scipio never lost a battle. At the start of his military career, at age 17 […]

Quora Question: Is the Roman Republic Similar to the Modern American Republic

No. It is a very dicey proposition to compare any modern republic to the pre-industrial society of Rome. The founding fathers of the U.S. had some admiration for Roman political forms and took some of the ideas of the Greek historian Polybius in account in establishing the political institutions of the new republic. Polybius pointed […]

Book Review: Democracy in Chains by Nancy MacLean

Democracy in Chains by Nancy MacLean How is it that a party that only 26% of American voters belong to has come to control most of our state governments and all branches of the Federal Government? Nancy MacLean, in her book Democracy in Chain describes a long term and effective movement to undermine democracy in […]

Book Review: Feast of Sorrow by Crystal King

Feast of Sorrow is a brilliant work of Historical fiction which seamlessly interweaves fictional and historical characters and, in addition, provides an insight into how the Romans conducted their famous feasts, what foods they ate and how they were prepared. Apicius was a famous gourmand of first century A.D. Rome, the beginning of the Julio-Claudian […]

What Ancient Rome owed to Greece.

This was a Quora question that I responded to. How does the phrase “the conqueror became the conquered one” relate to Rome’s imperial expansion into the Hellenistic world? Robin Levin, works at Writers and Authors (2012-present)   This was the sentiment of Quintus Horatius Flaccus, commonly known as Horace, who lived from 65 B.C. to […]

Identifying the Disease

Mass shootings. Ever growing numbers of Americans living in tents. A crumbling infrastructure. A failing educational system. A generation mired in educational debt. A minimum wage that doesn’t remotely cover the costs of living. Ever increasing extremes of wealth and poverty. A corrupt, incompetent and venal presidency. A corrupt, incompetent and venal legislature that does […]